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東アジア文化交渉研究創刊号―目次

東アジア文化交渉研究創刊号―論文全文

東アジア文化交渉学の構築にむけて 
Towards the Creation of East Asian Cultural Interaction Studies

藤田高夫(FUJITA Takao)

キーワード:文化交渉 東アジア 文化研究
Keywords: Cultural interaction, East Asia, cultural studies

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中国言語学における周縁からのアプローチ ― 文化交渉学の一領域として―
Peripheral approach on Chinese Linguistics as a area of Cultural Interaction Studies

内田慶市(UCHIDA Keiichi)

キーワード: 文化交渉学、周縁からのアプローチ、中心、中国言語学、個別と一般、特殊と普遍、中国文法学、虚実論

Depending upon the base upon which one respectively stands, in other words, depending upon one’s area or fi eld of specialization, different answers are possible to the question “What is Cultural Negotiation Science?” And yet they all share a fundamental methodology, which is an “approach from the periphery”. This paper considers the relation between that “periphery” and the “center” from the standpoint of Chinese linguistics, it attempts to examine the content of the correlation between the “individual” and the “common”, or the “special” and the “universal”, concepts that are connected to that relationship between the “periphery” and “center”, and it searches for the possibilities in and the effectiveness of that method.

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文化交渉学の方法論に関する考察 ― 宗教学を参考にして
A Consideration on Methodologies of the Study of Cultural Interaction in Reference with the History of Religions

小田淑子(ODA Yoshiko)

キーワード: 方法論、文字文化と無文字文化、共時的理論、文化の動態、文化の複合性

This paper discusses what the Study of Cultural Interaction will be and its methodological problems in reference of the case of the History of Religions. This was established in the middle of 19th century and intended to integrate various religious studies which had began in Oriental Studies and Cultural Anthropology. The main task of the Study of Cultural Interaction is the integral understanding of various cultural interactions, and the dynamics and complexity of cultural changes. However, sophisticated cultures have been studied in History based on texts and documents, but archaic and folk cultures whose original texts have hardly been made have been researched by means of fi eldworks in Anthropology. The synthesis of these cultural studies will be diffi cult. Explaining main methodologies of other related disciplines, this paper will present a core program and methodology of the new discipline, which will hopefully inspire further discussions.

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国粋主義と中華崇拝を超えて ― 五井蘭洲『百王一姓論』の再評価―
For Overcoming Nationalism and Sinocentrism: A Reappraisal of Goi Ranshū’s Hyaku-ō issei ron

陶徳民(TAO Demin)

キーワード: 五井蘭洲、百王一姓、松岡文雄、『神道学則日本魂』、王覇関係、神儒関係、大義名分、中正之道

Comparing with the Yoshida Shinto scholar Matsuoka Fumio’s (1701‒1783) Sinto Gakusoku Nippon-damashii, the present paper makes a thorough examination of Hyaku-o¯ issei ron by Goi Ranshu¯ (1897‒1762), a Neo-Confucian professor at the Kaitokudo¯ Academy in Osaka, and reevaluates Goi’s balanced sense of impartiality in dealing with such sensitive issues as the emperor-shogun relations and the Shintoism-Confucianism relations during a period when loyalism and ultra-nationalism were spreading their infl uence in the whole society.

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池田光政と儒教喪祭儀礼 
On Funerals and Ancestral Rituals of Confucianism Performed by IKEDA Mitsumasa in Edo Period

吾妻重二(AZUMA Juji)

キーワード: 池田光政、儒教、儀礼、朱熹、『家礼』、陽明学

This paper adds consideration to the issue of the burial systems, funeral services, the erecting of family mausoleums, and ancestral rituals, etc., that are based on the practice of Confucian rituals – especially those related to funerals and festivals – by Mitsumasa Ikeda (1609‒1682) in Bizen Okayama clan. The funeral and ancestral rituals that Ikeda implemented were based on Zhu Xi’s Family Rituals (家礼), they also referenced Qiu Jun’s Wengong Jiali Yijie (文公家礼儀節) and adopted Jigu Dingzhi (稽古定制), both Ming Dynasty writings, in order to suit his position as a daimyo (大名) feudal lord. Attention is also brought to the fact that when the shinshoku-uke( 神職請) Shinto priest system was implemented in place of the tera-uke( 寺請) temple certifi cate system due to the strong critique on Buddhism at the time, Ikeda distributed a funeral and ancestral manual based on Family Rituals to the people of his fi efdom and promoted Confucian rituals. What is also important here when taking into account the actual circumstances of the acceptance of Confucian rituals in Japan is the fact that the Yangming School, including Kumazawa Banzan, supported these resolute actions by Ikeda, emphasized the necessity for practice of Family Rituals, so the differences between the study of Zhu Xi’s writings and the ideas of the Yangming School sects did not become an issue.

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鑑真渡日と唐代道教
Jianzhen’s Arrival in Japan and Tang Era’s Taoism

王勇(WANG Yong)

キーワード: 鑑真、遣唐使、道教、井真成、吉備真備、泰山府君

There are already many researches about Jianzhen’s arrival in Japan. Therefore, this paper described his motives for going to Japan as being related to Taoism in the Tang era. Early return of Japanese dispatched priests and Jianzhen and the others’ obsessive passion for going to Japan is due to the Chinese circumstances which prosperity of Taoism reached its peak in the period of Xuanzong, and as well as Japanese circumstances, “Japanese emperor did not worship principles of Taoist priest”. There were no evidence that Tang era’s Taoism were taken into Japan, as a religious community which had facilities, offi cers, and organizations; however, Taoism among the Tang cultural things which are mixed into rituals, folk beliefs, and annual events would be brought to Japan by various routes n the era of Japanese envoy to the Tang Dynasty.

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日本新民謡運動の隆盛と植民地台湾との文化交渉 ― 西条八十作「台湾音頭」をめぐる騒動を例として―
The Cultural Interaction between Japan and Taiwan in the Colonial Period: The New-Minyo Movement and the Record “Taiwan-Ondo” by Victor K.K.

増田周子(MASUDA Chikako)

キーワード: 西条八十,新民謡運動,「台湾音頭」,台湾,レコード

The New-Minyo Movement that was centered on the creations of such songwriters as Ujo Noguchi, Yaso Saijo, Hakushu Kitahara, and Shimpei Nakayama, rapidly expanded throughout Japan from the end of the Taisho Period and into the Showa Period with various hit songs like “Habu no Minato” and “Tokyo-Ondo”. A new minyo folk song boom also emerged in colonial Taiwan, and many songs were written in there as well. However, due to an overly aggressive strategy and the commercialism of the recording labels, problems of plagiarism also surfaced, such as with Yaso Saijo’s “Taiwan-Ondo”, an issue that was examined by “Wakakusa”, a folk song and ballad magazine in Taiwan. Though this negative side did exist, it is still possible to touch upon a portion of the cultural interaction in East Asia by looking at the international expansion of the New-Minyo Movement.

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唐僧義空についての初歩的考察 ― 唐商徐公祐から義空への書簡―
Rudimentary Studies of Tang Priest Giku: The Letters Addressed to Tang Priest Giku from a Tang Merchant Jokoyu

大槻暢子(OTSUKI Yoko)

キーワード: 高野雑筆集,書簡,義空,徐公祐,大宰府鴻臚館

At the end of the last volume of Kukai’s Koya Zappitsu-shu (高野雑筆集) collection of correspondences, there are letters addressed to the Tang Dynasty monk Giku in Japan and to the boy Koba, etc., who served at his side. Amongst those, I took up the 3 letters sent by Tang Dynasty merchant Jokoyu, who was engaged in trade between Japan and Tang Dynasty China in the middle of the ninth century and who stayed at the Dazaifu Korokan guesthouse for foreign embassies in Japan. I have attempted to offer a basic explanation in regard to the content of those letters and have traced the negotiations and footsteps of the Tang Dynasty merchants and monks who were involved in exchange between Kyoto and Dazaifu, in Fukuoka Japan.


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清代浙江乍浦における日本貿易と沿海貿易の連関
Zhapu in Zhejiang as a Trading Port for Japan and Domestic Coastal Region During Qing Era

松浦章(MATSUURA Akira)

キーワード: 清代中国、乍浦、日本貿易、沿海貿易、中国帆船

The relationship between Qing Dynasty China and Japan continued over an extended period of time through Chinese ships sailing to Nagasaki. Representative of the ports of departure for these Chinese sailing ships was, in the early stages, Ningbo in Zhejiang Province, with Zhapu, also in Zhejiang Province, also focused on from around the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 18th century. Later, from the end of the fi rst half of the 18th century to the 1860s, Zhapu can in fact be considered the Chinese port that was the main base of trade with Japan.
The function of Zhapu as a port of trade with Japan in this way is emphasized in conventional research, but its important function as a port for coastal trade within China has been overlooked. Therefore, this paper begins the discussion of the relation between Zhapu and Japan starting from the Middle Age era of the Japanese pirates. It describes the fact of Zhapu not only functioning as a trade port with Japan during the Qing Dynasty but also that it was an important port for coastal trade in China, and, as one example of this, illustrates the relation between Zhapu and Chinese coastal trade as a method of clarifying why typical China-made sugar exported to Japan was stockpiled in Zhapu.

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石敢當と文化交渉 ― 奄美諸島を中心として―
Ishigantou (Talismanic Stone) and Cultural Interaction ― Mainly in Amami Islands ―

高橋誠一(TAKAHASHI Seiichi)

キーワード:石敢當、琉球、奄美諸島、喜界島、伝統的地理観、文化交渉

Situated at T- and L-intersections and at four-corner intersections to drive awayevil spirits or energy, Ishigantou talismanic stone tablets were a part of the so-called traditional geographical outlook that was transmitted from China.
In the kingdom of Ryukyu in Japan, Ishigantou were installed throughout the cities and villages, and this paper attempts to examine their distribution, etc., with the Amami Islands of Kagoshima Prefecture that was once a part of Ryukyu as the main area of focus. This tradition was brought from China to Okinawa Island, the center of the Ryukyu kingdom, and, as a result, it was then diffused throughout Ryukyu. At the same time, however, due to Ryukyu coming under the rule of the Kagoshima clan at the beginning of the 17th century, after it had spread from Okinawa’s capital city of Naha to Kagoshima, it was transmitted from Kagoshima to Edo (present day Tokyo) and throughout the whole of Japan. On the other hand, it was possible to confi rm that this tradition also propagated and spread in the opposite direction, from Kagoshima to the Amami Islands.
Cultural phenomena must be understood as a multi-directional and intricate thing, and I have illustrated the facts that there are many cases of culture originating from individuals or specifi c groups, and that its original character is changed by the process of cultural negotiation and new aspects emerge.

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民間信仰における神形象の変化について ― 華光大帝と招宝七郎を例に―
Transformation of Gods in Chinese Popular Religion Especially 華光大帝 (Huaguang Dadi) and 招寳七郎 (Zhaobao Qilang)

二階堂善弘(NIKAIDO Yoshihiro)

キーワード:民間信仰、伽藍神、道教

This short essay takes up Huaguang Dadi and Zhaobao Qilang, known as temple guardians, and chiefl y examines the idea that the form of some gods has been infl uenced by others.
Huaguang Dadi is also known as Ma Lingguan. During the Ming Dynasty, he was shown with a third eye, he had no beard, and he was known for holding a gold brick in his hand. Wang Lingguan, on the other hand, is enshrined as the Taoist guardian deity, to the extent that it can be considered to “always” exist in Taoist temples, especially those of Quanzhen Jiao’s sect. Both of these gods have a number of common features, including three eyes. For a number of reasons, it can be thought that Wang Lingguan and Guangong respectively succeeded the function of Huaguang (the remaining demon) as temple guardian.
Zhaobao Qilang is also given the character of a sea god, and his appearance includes the feature of raising one hand and looking into the distance. Another sea god that similarly looks off into the distance is Qianli Yan. However, that wasn’t the original form of Qianli Yan and his appearance of looking off into the distance might have been due to the infl uence of Zhaobao Qilang. There is a god named Daxi Sikong in the Nanhai Shenmiao temple of the South Sea God of Guangzhou Province whose image takes on the appearance of looking into the distance as well. Thus, there is the possibility that the form of sea gods looking off into the distance was infl uenced by other gods that had the same look.

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中部ヴェトナム・ビンディン省出土の銅鼓資料と文化的脈絡についての検討
Considerations on the bronze drums discovered in Bình Định province of the central Vietnam and its cultural context

西村昌也/ファン・ミン・フエン(NISHIMURA Masanari and PHAM Minh Huyen)

キーワード: 中部ヴェトナム,銅鼓,失蝋法,墓葬,インド化

15 pieces of bronze drum in Bình Định Province, central Vietnam are suggestive materials for understanding the technological and cultural contexts of the bronze drums in Southeast Asia. This paper considered its technological and cultural background based on the restudy of the bronze drum collection and their discovery sites.
The chronological frequencies of the drum assemblage indicate that the duration of the bronze drum usage is not long successive period (1st C. BC to 2nd C.AD) and possibly stopped the bronze drum usage at the same time or in very short duration. Only Gò Rộng drum was identifi ed as the possibly local-made drum by lost-wax technique and the other are transported from the northern Vietnam. No bronze drums later than the 3b period (later than the late 2nd C. AD) of Imamura’s chronology are seen in not only Bình Định but also central and southern Vietnam, Cambodia, coastal area of Thailand and Malay Peninsular. During the 2nd C.AD, the early states formation or political integration with the strong infl uence from India and China are already evidenced in this region. Especially the Indianized ideas for the statecraft and religion possibly left no space for the survival of the bronze drum usage in their society. Thus this ending period of the bronze drum usage well accords with the real beginning of the Indianization in the Southeast Asia.

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古琉球期の琉球王国における「海船」をめぐる諸相
Several Aspects of Sea-Going Vessels of Ryukyu Kingdom in Old Ryukyu Period

岡本弘道(OKAMOTO Hiromichi)

キーワード:琉球王国,海船,字号船,半印勘合,ヒキ

I have clarifi ed each of the following points in regard to the “sea-going vessels” that composed the basis of sea activity and cultural interaction in the Ryukyu Kingdom during the Old Ryukyu period. (1) The fi rst sea-going vessels of Ryukyu were the Jigo-sen vessel(s) with identifi cation numbers that were built and registered during the Ming Dynasty. It can be said that the growth that is visible in the scale of the sea-going vessels in the middle of the 15th century and then their miniaturization in the fi rst part of the 16th century are phenomena that both indicate the uniqueness of Ryukyu. (2) The Han’in Kango tally that was issued along with the dispatch of Ryukyu sea-going vessels is something that runs through the East Asian sea region during that age. Furthermore, by tracing back those numbers, I have presented the concrete circumstances behind the dispatch of Ryukyu sea-going vessels. (3) Ryukyu sea-going vessels were named in the respective fashions of China, Japan, and Ryukyu and their operating organizations were diverted to the Hiki land-based organizations, which had a major infl uence on the establishment of the system of governance in the Ryukyu Kingdom.

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Reading Song-Ming Records on the Pre-colonial History of the Philippines1)

WANG Zhenping

キーワード: Trade, chiefdom, regional politics, Chinese-Philippine relations, history of the Philippines

Chinese records of the Song-Ming period provide the context necessary for our understanding of the history of the pre-colonial Philippines. Rulers of chiefdoms in the region employed unique methods and formed far-reaching networks when trading with each other and with China. Trade was one of their ways to build domestic power structure and to establish their positions relative to one another in regional politics. They also organized missions to seek Chinese recognition of these power relations.

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チベット木版印刷プロジェクトとその構成メンバー
Tibetan Printing Projects and Their Staff Member

伏見英俊(FUSHIMI Hidetoshi)

キーワード: チベット,仏教,木版本,旧Sa-skya版,サキャ派

As a preliminary consideration for research into xylographic editions in Tibetan non-canonical literature, in this paper I have attempted to research the xylographic printing projects on Tibetan non-canonical literature and the members that composed those projects, chiefl y focusing on block prints related to the Sa-skya-pa tradition. This research fi rst takes a general view of early period wood-block printing such as the Old Sa-skya edition, of the Derge edition of the 1730s, and of early modern age wood-block printing, etc. Based on the descriptions in the Sa skya bka’ ‘bum, I then took the persons in charge of each wood-block printing work into consideration. Finally, I introduced some of the methods of analyzing woodcut information from the various traces left in the print blocks.

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中国ムスリムの孝概念
On the Concept of Filial Piety in Chinese Muslim

佐藤実(SATO Minoru)

キーワード: 孝,中国ムスリム,喪礼,『中庸』,イスラーム漢籍,中国アラビア書道

This paper takes an overview of the features of the concept Chinese Muslim piety from the Chinese Islamic classics written in the early modern age, and considers the relationship between Chinese Islam and Confucianism, the traditional thought of China.
Chinese Muslims value piety, but in accordance with the traditional Confucianist scriptures of China, especially “The Doctrine of the Mean”. At that time, Islam replaces the Heaven expounded by Confucianism with God. I have pointed out the fact that their valuing of piety comes from a consciousness of being the people who carry on Chinese tradition.
I have also submitted the hypothesis that, although ancestral rituals and religious services were performed in a manner that lacked a mortuary tablet, might not China-
Arabia calligraphy have been used as a substitute for that tablet?

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雲南回族における呪術的治療行為について ― 呪術とモダニティ論を用いた整理
Rethinking the Healing Practices among the Hui (Chinese Muslims) in Yunnan Province: Research Notes from the Viewpoint of Modernization and Otherness

木村自(KIMURA Mizuka)

キーワード: healing practices, Hui (Chinese Muslims), modernization of medicine, Islamic reformism

This paper tries to clarify the fi eld data concerning the healing practices of Hui or Chinese Muslims in a rural village in Yunnan province. Two points are signifi cant for analyzing healing practices in the study of anthropology: fi rst, interface between traditional healings and the modernization both of medicine and religion, and second, embracement of the otherness in the narratives of healings. Traditional healings have been marginalized from those two modernist discourses. In response to those marginalization, traditional healings take the strategy for embracing the hegemonic discourse in order to maintain their medical practices. In the case of Hui in China, healing practices were, on the one hand, reformed as a “superstition” or “undesirable customs” by the Chinese Communist Party. On the other hand, they had been attacked as the unorthodox practices by the reformist movement of Islam in China. The fi eld data illustrates, however, that villagers speak of the magical powers of the healers through the articulation of their practices to the hegemonic medical and religious discourses.

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“一名之立、旬月踟蹰”之前之后 ― 严译与新国语的呼唤
Before and After “Deliberating for Weeks to Establish a Single Term”: Yan Fu’s Translations and the Call for a New National Language

沈国威(SHEN Guowei)

キーワード: 厳復、天演論、進化、植民、日本借用語

From 1896 until 1909 Yan Fu published eight translations that greatly infl uenced the Chinese society. During the translation process he created many translation loans, but his translations were still written in an old Chinese style. This paper investigates what kind of infl uence was exerted on contemporary Chinese by Yan Fu’s translations. Especially it analyzes the situation of Chinese in the period of his fi rst translations and deals with the selection criteria of his literary style and his way of coining translation loans. Furthermore, this paper presents the history of some terms used by Yan Fu, such as jinhua, tianyan, zhimin and jixue.

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言語研究対象としての中国語Wikipediaの可能性
Chinese Language Wikipedia as a Potential Linguistic Object

氷野善寛(HINO Yoshihiro)

キーワード:Wikipedia, Chinese Corpus, Digital archives, Database

One issue is what type of language-related materials needs to be collected when constructing a corpus that targets today’s Chinese language and when performing a consideration of the Chinese language. And, because copyright protection is required for a great deal of language-related material, attention needs to be taken as well when collecting and using modern materials. Under such circumstances, the Internet has recently been chosen for use as a huge language database, with research conducted using existing search and information retrieval tools. In this case, however, the results vary each time and reproducibility of the research thus becomes a problem. I therefore paid attention specifi cally to the Chinese version of Wikipedia as the language-related material for Chinese language research. In this paper, I considered the specific characteristics of Wikipedia, noted its possibilities as language-related material, and added the experimental consideration of using Wikipedia as a corpus.

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漢語副詞「営々と」の意義変遷 ―〈継続〉を示す意味の成立をめぐって―
On the Meaning Change of the Kango Adverb Eiei to(営々と)

陳贇(CHEN Yun)

キーワード:畳字形漢語副詞,評価性,同音語の交替,近現代日本語,漢語と和語

The Kango (kanji-based) loanword “Eiei” was a word that, in the original Chinese, had a negative connotation and meant “continuously coming and going”. But when it was accepted into Japanese, it became a term with the positive connotation in its use chiefly as an adverb. At that time, it can be thought that the change in the usage and style from “Eiei to shite” to “Eiei to” also played a role. It can be thought that the meaning of “continually” that is generated in that meaning of the word was also behind such a semantic change. Moreover, it can be considered that, as a result of Eiei (営々) acquiring the meaning of “continually”, it became synonymous with its homonym, the “eiei” (永々) used from old, and, consequently, “eiei” (永々) became subsumed and absorbed into Eiei (営々), thus resulting in a substitution of those words.

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漢訳仏典における翻訳語「頗梨」の成立
The Establishment of “Po li” as Translated Words in Chinese Buddhist Literature

宮嶋純子(MIYAJIMA Junko)

キーワード:漢訳仏典,ガラスの名称,頗梨,玻璃,琉璃

The word for the English “glass” in present day Chinese is “bo li” (玻璃). However, it is not well known that “bo li” is also a word that was used in translations of original Buddhist scriptures, but there, rather than “glass” it had the meaning of “crystal”. Along with pursuing the circumstances behind the establishment of “bo li” as a term used in the translation of Buddhist scriptures – it was written down in olden times as “po li” (頗梨) – in this paper I also considered the process of this word becoming generally and widely accepted in China and infl uencing the transformation of its meaning. In regard to the effect that the translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese has had on the formation of a Chinese vocabulary, research is conventionally focused on issues related to Buddhist doctrine and thought. However, in this paper, by paying attention to the original term “po li”, which has no direct relation to Buddhist thought, I wanted to fi nd a new meaning to vocabulary research using Chinese translations of Buddhist scriptures.


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表紙


東アジア文化交渉研究創刊号
  • 東アジア文化交渉研究 
  • 創刊号

紀要一覧

ICIS Overseas Publication Series

次世代フォーラム

周縁の文化交渉学シリーズ

その他

拠点関係者出版物

拠点関係者出版物